Write a detailed account on the history of computer

Essay on history of computer

Experimental equipment that he built in went into operation five years later, converting a portion of the telephone exchange network into an electronic data processing system, using thousands of vacuum tubes. Now, as then, it typically consists of a rectangular frame with thin parallel rods strung with beads. Computers, too, have proved capable of solving a vast array of problems, from balancing a checkbook to even—in the form of guidance systems for robots—walking across a room. Transistors, however, had their problems too. As soon as the advantage of these techniques became clear, they became a standard practice. It also features a drop-down menu and icons. Then, in , aged only 18, French scientist and philosopher Blaise Pascal — invented the first practical mechanical calculator , the Pascaline, to help his tax-collector father do his sums. In , Lord Kelvin had already discussed the possible construction of such calculators, but he had been stymied by the limited output torque of the ball-and-disk integrators. But when Babbage pressed the government for more money to build an even more advanced machine, they lost patience and pulled out. IBM, which up to this time had been producing mainframes and minicomputers for medium to large-sized businesses, decided that it had to get into the act and started working on the Acorn, which would later be called the IBM PC. The history of the Computer started about years ago with the abacus. Moreover, the loom was equipped with a card-reading device that slipped a new card from a prepunched deck into place every time the shuttle was thrown, so that complex weaving patterns could be automated. He establishes a company that would ultimately become IBM. IBM became the unquestioned market leader in selling these large, expensive, error-prone, and very hard to use machines.

So a new technology was urgently required. The first large-scale digital computer of this kind appeared in at Harvard University, built by mathematician Howard Aiken — That process was laborious, costly, and error prone.

John Bardeen —Walter Brattain —and William Shockley — were then helping Bell to develop new technology for the American public telephone system, so the electrical signals that carried phone calls could be amplified more easily and carried further.

history of computers with pictures

In just two and a half years, Apple sold around 50, of the machine, quickly accelerating out of Jobs' garage to become one of the world's biggest companies. Use of Punched Cards by Hollerith A step towards automated computing was the development of punched cards, which were first successfully used with computers in by Herman Hollerith left and James Powers, who worked for the US.

history of computer technology

These computers used electromechanical devices in which electrical power provided mechanical motion -- like turning the wheels of an adding machine.

Computers of the s and 50s had 18, tubes in them and housing all these tubes and cooling the rooms from the heat produced by 18, tubes was not cheap.

History of computers for kids

Its two inventors formed the Eckert Mauchly Computer Corporation in the late s. In addition to saving space, the speed of the machine was now increased since there was a diminished distance that the electrons had to follow. Kilby's invention was another step forward, but it also had a drawback: the components in his integrated circuit still had to be connected by hand. In combination, these features make very — high — speed operation attainable. Another pioneering feature was the first memory store or "register. These machines were digital computers: unlike analog machines, which stored numbers using the positions of wheels and rods, they stored numbers as digits. Photo: A Differential Analyzer. The fundamental concept of Turing's design is the stored program , where all the instructions for computing are stored in memory. The slide rule was invented around —, shortly after the publication of the concept of the logarithm. Computers truly came into their own as great inventions in the last two decades of the 20th century. These were the first machines that used electrical switches to store numbers: when a switch was "off", it stored the number zero; flipped over to its other, "on", position, it stored the number one. Clair Kilby of Texas Instruments. In effect, it could be mechanically "programmed" to read instructions. The basic principle of his calculator is still used today in water meters and modern-day odometers.

One of Bush's final wartime contributions was to sketch out, inan idea for a memory-storing and sharing device called Memex that would later inspire Tim Berners-Lee to invent the World Wide Web.

Left: The "user interface": the part where you dial in numbers you want to calculate.

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History of Computers