Paganism Lyotard develops the notion of paganism in "Lessons in Paganism" reprinted in The Lyotard ReaderJust Gaming and various other short works of the late seventies. As a defining element with which to characterise these technical and technological advancements, Lyotard chooses computerization.
Yet I would like not to remain with this slightly mechanistic meaning of the word. What object do Picasso and Braque attack? It is the concept of dissimulation which makes this possible. Lyotard presents various examples of the differend, the most important of which is Auschwitz.
It covers a wide variety of topics, including phenomenology, psychoanalysis, structuralism, poetry and art, Hegelian dialectics, semiotics, and philosophy of language. Rather postmodern art would be that taking place of a self-enclosed event that withstands interpretation and is irreducible, as art, to any use value.
Que peindre? The situation is a double bind because there are two alternatives - either there were gas chambers or there were not - which lead to the same conclusion: there were no gas chambers and no Final Solution.
There is a strong correlation between his concern that events are not done justice by any one theoretical, representational system, and his concern that events of political import are not done justice by the way any particular political party or philosophy represents them.
Diacritics,14 3special issue on Lyotard. The nihilistic aspect of representational theory is this denial of the libidinal. This division of knowledge is caught within a type of oppositional thinking that Lyotard believes is out of step with postmodern modes of knowledge.
In an amazing acceleration, the generations precipitate themselves. It focuses on the experimentation of the avant-garde, and Lyotard takes as privileged examples Abstract Expressionism and particularly the work of Barnett Newman. In Discours, figure, visual arts are associated with the figural and the process of seeing. In Lyotard's postmodern philosophy the sublime is the feeling that indicates the limits of reason and representation. Silverman, Hugh J. Justice demands, however, that wrongs be presented - we must at least try to "present the unpresentable. Metanarratives do violence to alternative representations of events that are valid in their own right. Furthermore, postmodern science is undermining legitimation by performativity by retheorizing the way science itself develops: science does not develop in a progressive fashion and towards a unified knowledge, but in a discontinuous and paradoxical manner, undermining previous paradigms by the development of new ones. So how do we judge, without criteria? What presupposition does Duchamp break with in ? He rejects the idea of a master-discourse later called a metanarrative that is thought to provide the basis for judgement in all situations. Lyotard takes Barnett Newman's work as a paragon of postmodern, avant-garde art. But the task of justice, he claims, is not to let the Nazis or their modern apologists claim a relativism of different discourses. What is at stake in the genre of comedy, for example, is to be humorous, to make people laugh. Modernity is defined as the age of metanarrative legitimation, and postmodernity as the age in which metanarratives have become bankrupt.
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