For example, if an army base in the middle of a city is bombed and a few civilians living nearby are killed as well, nothing unethical has been done, because the army base was a legitimate target and the death of civilians was not the intention of the bombing even though their death could be predicted.
Academic Tools. We have added a fifth condition on causing unintended harm: that the agent seek to minimize the harm involved. Death is not always bad - so double effect is irrelevant: Other philosophers say that the Doctrine of Double Effect assumes that we think that death is always bad.
Rule We get a principled reason to support affirmative action, environmental protection laws, and consumer protection laws. Even if it is equally certain that the two bombers will cause the same number of civilian deaths, terror bombing is impermissible while strategic bombing is permissible.
Mangan, Joseph, For example, very little harm is done to the environment if I realize I'm out of ketchup and I drive to the store before dinner so that I buy some ketchup.
For Aquinas, the central idea of justice is to bring it about to "render" to each his own, where "each man's own is that which is due to him according to equality of proportion.
Many doctors use this doctrine to justify the use of high doses of drugs such as morphine for the purpose of relieving suffering in terminally-ill patients even though they know the drugs are likely to cause the patient to die sooner.
The agent may not positively will the bad effect but may permit it. Instead, independently grounded moral considerations have influenced how we draw the distinction between means and side effects in the first place. Examples like these suggest that the cases Double Effect has been taken to apply to may involve many different dimensions of agency rather than a sharp contrast that concerns a single dimension of agency.